Potassium (K) Orbital diagram, Electron configuration, and Valence electrons

Home Potassium Orbital diagram, Electron Configuration, and Valence electrons

Potassium has an atomic number of 19 belongs to Group 1 also known as the Alkali metal group. It is situated in the s-block of the periodic table. Potassium has the symbol K and “It is the second least dense metal after lithium”.

In this article, we will discuss – Potassium Orbital diagram, Electron configuration, and Valence electrons in detail.

Orbital diagram:- A orbital diagram is simply a pictorial representation of the arrangement of electrons in the orbital of an atom, it shows the electrons in the form of arrows, also, indicates the spin of electrons.

Electron configuration:- Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals. It shows the electrons in numbers, It doesn’t show the details on the spin of electrons like the orbital diagram.

Valence electrons:- Valence electrons are the simply outermost electron of an atom situated in an outermost shell surrounding an atomic nucleus. They can participate in the formation of chemical bonds.

How to find Electron configuration of Potassium (K)?

The electron configuration of Potassium can be found using the Aufbau principle.

Aufbau Principle:

  • The word ‘Aufbau’ in German means ‘building up’.
  • The Aufbau rule simply gives the order of electrons filling in the orbital of an atom in its ground state.
  • It states that the orbital with the lowest energy level will be filled first before those with high energy levels. In short, the electrons will be filled in the orbital in order of their increasing energies.
  • For example, the 1s orbital will be filled first with electrons before the 2s orbital.

Simply understand that there are commonly four different types of subshells – s, p, d, and, f.

These subshells can hold a maximum number of electrons on the basis of a formula, 2(2l + 1) where ‘l’ is the azimuthal quantum number.

Value of ‘l’ for different subshells.

SubshellsValue of ‘l’Maximum number of electrons, 2(2l + 1)Number of orbitals in the subshell
s021
p163
d2105
f3147

So, in short, the s subshell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons(1 orbital), the p subshell can hold 6 electrons(3 orbitals), the d subshell can hold 10 electrons(5 orbitals), and the f subshell can hold at most 14 electrons(7 orbitals).

Now, the electron configuration of an atom can be built by filling the electrons in a lower energy subshell first then higher, higher, and higher.

Generally, (n + l) rule is used to predict the energy level of subshells.

n = principle quantum number

l = Azimuthal quantum number

⇒ Lower the value of (n + l) for an subshell, the lower its energy, hence, it will be filled first with electrons.

⇒ For two different subshells having same (n + l) value, then the subshell with lower value of n has lower energy.

So, all these are basics of How filling of electrons will be done in different subshells, obviously, you don’t have so much time for writing electron configuration by using so many rules.

Therefore, we have a diagonal rule for electron filling order in the different subshells using the Aufbau principle.

Aufbau principle for finding electron configuration

So, the order in which the orbitals are filled with electrons from lower energy to higher energy is – 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s < 5f < 6d < 7p and so on.

Potassium Electron configuration using the Aufbau Principle

  • A Potassium atom is a neutral atom that has an atomic number of 19 which implies it has a total of 19 electrons.
  • As per the Aufbau rule, the electrons will be filled into 1s orbital first then 2s, then 2p…so on.
  • Now, for the electron configuration of Potassium, the first 2 electrons will go in 1s orbital since s subshell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons.
  • The next two electrons will go into the 2s orbital, after that, the next 6 electrons will go into the 2p orbital since the p subshell can hold up to 6 electrons.
  • The next two electrons will go into the 3s orbital, and after that, the next six electrons will go in the 3p orbital, finally, the remaining one electron will go into the 4s orbital.
  • Therefore, the electron configuration of Potassium will be 1s22s22p63s23p64s1.

Electron configuration for Potassium (K)

Potassium (K) Electron Configuration

Orbital diagram for Potassium

The orbital diagram simply represents the arrangement of electrons in the different orbitals of an atom, it uses an arrow to represent the electrons, every orbital(one box) contains a maximum of 2 electrons.

There are three rules followed for drawing the orbital diagram for an atom.

(1). Aufbau’s principle:- This rule state that the lower energy orbital will be filled before the higher energy orbital, for example – the 1s orbital will fill before the 2s orbital.

(2). Hund’s rule:- This rule state that each orbital of a given subshell should be filled with one electron each before pairing them. That means “Each orbital gets one electron first, before adding the second electron to the orbital”.

(3). Pauli Exclusion Principle:- This rule state that, no two electrons can occupy the same orbital with the same spin. That means “One must be spin up (↑) and one must be spin down (↓)”.

rules for drawing the orbital diagram

If you understand the above rules then constructing the orbital diagram or orbital notation for Potassium is super easy.

Basics of Orbital diagram:-

There are different types of orbitals – s, p, d, and, f. These orbitals contain a number of boxes that can hold a number of electrons. Let’s see.

Each box will hold a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spin.

  • S orbital contains 1 box that can hold a maximum of 2 electrons.
  • P orbital contains 3 boxes that can hold a maximum of 6 electrons.
  • D orbital contains 5 boxes that can hold a maximum of 10 electrons.
  • F orbital contains 7 boxes that can hold a maximum of 14 electrons.

The orbital diagram will also be filled with the same order as described by the Aufbau principle. (1s < 2s < 2p < 3s……and so on.)

What is the Orbital diagram for Potassium?

We know the electron configuration of Potassium is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1, now for drawing its orbital diagram, we need to show its electrons in form of an arrow in different boxes using Hund’s and Pauli’s exclusion rule.

  • The orbital diagram of Potassium contains 1s orbital, 2s orbital, 2p orbital, 3s orbital, 3p orbital, and 4s orbital. 1s orbital contains 1 box, 2s orbital also contains 1 box, 2p orbital contains 3 boxes, 3s orbital contains 1 box, 3p orbital contains 3 boxes, and 4s orbital contains 1 box.
  • Potassium has a total of 19 electrons and one box can hold up to two electrons.
  • Therefore, the first two electrons will go into the 1s orbital, the next two will go into the 2s orbital, and after that, the next six electrons will go into the 2p orbital, since, the 2p orbital has 3 boxes.
  • After that, the next two electrons will go into the 3s orbital, and the next six electrons will enter the 3p orbital. Now, the 3p orbital is full.
  • Therefore, the remaining one electron will go in 4s orbital in the clockwise direction. (↑)

Orbital diagram for Potassium (K)

Potassium Orbital diagram

Electron configuration Vs Orbital diagram for Potassium

The main difference between the orbital diagram and electron configuration is an orbital diagram shows electrons in form of arrows whereas an electron configuration shows electrons in form of numbers. Also, the orbital diagram shows details on the spin of electrons whereas the electron configuration doesn’t show it.

Both these follow the Aufbau principle (Diagonal rule).

Electron configuration vs Orbital diagram for Potassium

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Electron configuration for Potassium via Bohr model (Orbit)

Bohr model describes the visual representation of orbiting electrons around the small nucleus. It used different electron shells such as K, L, M, N…so on.

These electron shells hold a specific number of electrons that can be calculated via the 2n2 formula where n represents the shell number.

Electron shellsShell number (n)Max. number of electrons (2n2)
K12
L28
M318
N432

So, K is the first shell or orbit that can hold up to 2 electrons, L is the 2nd shell which can hold up to 8 electrons, M is the third shell that can hold up to 18 electrons, and N is the fourth shell that can hold up to 32 electrons.

Now, Potassium has an atomic number of 19 and it contains a total number of 19 electrons. Hence, 2 electrons will go in the first shell(K), 8 electrons will go in the second shell(L), the next eight electrons will go in the third shell(M), and the remaining one electron will go in the fourth shell(N).

Therefore, the electrons per shell for Potassium are 2, 8, 8, 1 hence, we can say, based on the shell, the electronic configuration of the Potassium atom is [2, 8, 8, 1].

Also checkHow to draw Bohr model of Potassium atom

Potassium Valence electrons

Valence electrons are the outermost electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom. They have more energy, hence, they are part of most chemical reactions.

We can find valence electrons of an atom either by knowing its periodic group number or its electron configuration. Both these ways are super easy.

Finding Potassium Valence electrons through the Group number

For neutral atoms, the valence electrons of an atom will be equal to its main periodic group number. However, for transition metals, the process of finding valence electrons is complicated.

Now, for determining the valence electron for the Potassium atom, look at the periodic table and find its Group number. The group number can be found from its column on the periodic table.

Valence electron for potassium

So, the number of valence electrons in Potassium is 1. Since it belongs to Group 1st in the Periodic table.

Finding Potassium Valence electrons through the Electron configuration or Bohr model

We know, the electron configuration of the Potassium atom is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1, and valence electrons are those electrons found in the outer shell of an atom.

This electron configuration of Potassium shows that the outer shell of Potassium has only 1 electron(4s1), hence, the number of valence electrons in the Potassium atom is 1.

Also, we know, the electron configuration of Potassium, based on the shells is [2, 8, 8, 1], which means, that two electrons are present in the first shell, eight electrons are present in the 2nd shell, eight electrons are present in the third shell, and one electron in the fourth shell or outer shell.

Hence, the electrons found in the 4th shell of the Potassium atom are its valence electrons because it is the outermost shell also called the valence shell.

The 4th shell or outer shell of the Potassium atom contains only 1 electron, therefore, the number of valence electrons in the Potassium atom is only 1.

How many valence electron does potassium have

Potassium Valence electrons

Electron configuration, Valence electrons, and Orbital diagram of Potassium in tabular form

Name of atomPotassium (K)
Number of electrons19
Number of electrons per shell[2, 8, 8, 1]
Number of valence electrons1
Electron configuration1s22s22p63s23p64s1 or [Ar] 4s1
Orbital diagramConsists of six orbitals – 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 4s.

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FAQ

What are the Ground state and Excited-state Electron configurations of Potassium?

There is a simple difference between Ground state and Excited-state configuration.

The ground state configuration of an atom is the same as its regular electron configuration in which electrons remain in the lowest possible energy.

So, the ground-state electron configuration for the Potassium atom is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1.

The excited-state configuration of an atom is different from the regular configuration of an atom, this occurs, when an electron is excited and jumps into a higher orbital.

The excited-state electron configuration for Potassium is 1s22s22p63s23p64p1.

What is the shorthand electron configuration of Potassium?

The shorthand electron configuration for the Potassium atom is [Ar] 4s1.

∴ [Ar] electron configuration is 1s22s22p63s23p6.

Which element has the 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 Electron configuration?

Element with electron configuration 1s22s22p63s23p64s1 is Potassium (K) that has the atomic number of 19.

How many valence electrons does Potassium have?

The Potassium atom has only 1 valence electron in its outermost or valence shell. Potassium is belonged to group 1st and has the atomic number of 19.

What is the orbital diagram for Potassium (K)?

The orbital diagram for Potassium is drawn with 6 orbitals. The orbitals are 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 4s. The Potassium orbital diagram contains 2 electrons in the 1s orbital, 2 electrons in the 2s orbital, the six electrons in the 2p orbital, the two electrons in the 3s orbital, the next six electrons in the 3p orbital, and the remaining one electron will go in 4s orbital.

An orbital diagram for a ground-state electron configuration of a Potassium atom is shown below-

Orbital notation for potassium

What is the electron configuration of the K+ ion?

We know, in general, the electron configuration of Potassium (K) is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1.

Now, in the K+ ion, the positive charge means, Potassium loses one electron.

Therefore, to write the electron configuration of the K+ ion, we have to remove one electron from the configuration of Potassium (K).

∴ The resulting electron configuration for the Potassium ion (K+) will be 1s22s22p63s23p6. It resembles the configuration of the nearest inert gas i.e Argon.

Properties of Potassium

  • It appears as silvery-grey metal.
  • It has a boiling point of 759 °C and a melting point of 63.5 °C.
  • Its oxidation state varies from -1 to +1.
  • Its electronegativity is 0.82 on the Pauling scale.
  • It occurs in many minerals such as orthoclase.

Summary

  • The electron configuration of Potassium in terms of the shell or orbit is [2, 8, 8, 1].
  • The ground-state electron configuration of the Potassium (K) atom is 1s22s22p63s23p64s1. And for the excited state, it is 1s22s22p63s23p64p1.
  • The shorthand electron configuration for Potassium is [Ar] 4s1.
  • The electron configuration for potassium ion (K+) is 1s22s22p63s23p6.
  • The number of valence electrons available for the Potassium atom is 1. Potassium is situated in Group 1st and has an atomic number of 19.
  • The first shell of Potassium has 2 electrons and the outer shell or valence shell of Potassium has only 1 electron, hence, the number of valence electrons in the Potassium atom is 1.
  • The orbital diagram for Potassium is drawn by following three principles – the Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, and Pauli’s exclusion principle.
  • The Potassium orbital diagram comprises six orbitals. The six orbitals are 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, and 4s.
  • The first two electrons will go in the 1s orbital, the next two in the 2s orbital, the next six in the 2p orbital, the next two electrons in the 3s orbital, the next six electrons in the 3p orbital, and the remaining one electron in 4s orbital.
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