# Bohr model of Nickel Atom-How to draw Nickel (Ni) Bohr-Rutherford diagram?

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The Bohr Model of Nickel (Ni) has a nucleus that contains 31 neutrons and 28 protons. This nucleus is surrounded by four electron shells namely K-shell, L-shell, M-shell, and N-shell. The 1st shell has 2 electrons, the 2nd shell has 8 electrons, the 3rd shell has 16 electrons and the 4th electron shell has 2 electrons.

 Name Nickel Bohr Model Number of neutrons 31 Number of protons 28 Number of electrons 28 Total electron shells 4 Electron in the First shell(K) 2 Electrons in the Second shell(L) 8 Electrons in the Third shell(M) 16 Electrons in the Fourth shell(N) 2 Total valence electrons in Nickel 10
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## How to draw Bohr Model of Nickel (Ni)?

Bohr model describes the visual representation of orbiting electrons around the small nucleus. It used different electron shells such as K, L, M, N…so on. These shells hold a specific number of electrons, the electron shell which is closest to the nucleus has less energy and the electron shell which is farthest from the nucleus has more energy.

Bohr’s diagram is very interesting and easy to draw. Here, we will draw the Bohr model of the Nickel atom with some simple steps.

## Steps to draw the Bohr Model of Nickel atom

1. Find the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the Nickel

Protons are the positively charged particles and neutrons are the uncharged particles, both these are constituents of the atom nuclei. Electrons are the negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom

To find the number of protons an atom contains, just look at its atomic number.

If the atomic number of atom is 45, then proton will also be 45, if atomic number is 46, then proton will also be 46.

So, the atomic number for Nickel is 28, hence, the number of protons in the Nickel atom is also 28.

Now, to determine the number of neutrons in an atom, use this formula.

⇒ Number of neutrons in atom = Atomic mass of the atom(rounded to the nearest whole number) – Number of proton in an atom

For example, An atom have 33.988 atomic mass and 16 protons.

Then, to find the number of neutron, round the atomic mass to the near whole number, so, atomic mass 33.988 round to 34.

= (34 – 16 protons) = 18 number of neutrons in the atom

Now, to get the number of neutrons in a Nickel atom, look at its atomic mass which is 58.6934 rounded off to the nearest whole number it is 59. The number of protons present in Nickel is 28.

∴ Hence, the number of neutrons in the Nickel atom = (59-28) = 31.

It should be noted that “The number of electrons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of protons”.

As the Nickel (Ni) atom is neutral thus the number of electrons present in it will be equal to its number of protons i.e., 28, as we discussed earlier.

⇒ The number of electrons in a Nickel atom = 28

⇒ The number of protons in the Nickel atom = 28

⇒ The number of neutrons in a Nickel atom = 31

Let’s read in detailHow to find number of protons, electrons, neutrons?

2. Draw the nucleus of an atom

A nucleus is a dense and small region that contains the number of protons and neutrons of an atom.

In this step, we have to draw a small circle that consists of a number of protons and the number of neutrons of a Nickel atom.

3. Draw the First electron shell

“An electron shell may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom’s nucleus.”

The first electron shell is also called the K-shell, this is the closest shell to the nucleus of an atom and can hold a maximum of two electrons.

As we identified, the Nickel atom has a total of 28 electrons. So we need to put 2 electrons from the 28 available in the first shell, next to each other, as shown below.

Now, that we have successfully drawn the first shell of the Nickel atom that can hold 2 electrons, we know that we have used 2 electrons out of the 28 available in the first shell.

(28-2) = 26 electrons.

This shows we are left with 26 electrons that we need to accommodate in the subsequent shells of the Nickel atom.

4. Draw the Second electron shell

The second shell also called the L-shell that can hold a maximum of 8 electrons. This shell is drawn after the first electron shell.

In the second electron shell, the electrons are added one at a time, starting from the top position and then going in a clockwise direction.

In second shell, electrons are added one at a time in clockwise direction as a clock position – 12 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 6 o’clock, 9 o’clock positions.

Once you place the electrons one at a time to each of the four sides(Top – Right – Bottom – Left], start pairing or doubling them.

As we have 26 remaining electrons of a Nickel atom, out of which the second shell can hold only a maximum of 8 valence electrons.

Thus, we place the next 8 electrons of the Nickel atom in the second shell. Start from the top position and put electrons one at a time, moving in a clockwise direction (Top-Right-Bottom-Left), and finally pair them up.

At this step, out of the 26 electrons of the Nickel atom, we have placed 2 electrons in the first shell and 8 electrons in the second shell.

[28 – (2+8)] = 18 electrons.

This means we are now left with 18 electrons. So let’s see how we can assign them their appropriate positions in the next shells of the Nickel atom.

5. Draw the Third electron shell

The third electron shell also called the M-shell can accommodate up to 18 electrons. For the elements in the first few periods of the Periodic Table, the third shell holds up to 8 electrons only. But actually, in totality, it has the capacity to hold 18 electrons.

⇒ The third subshell exhibits this capacity of holding ‘up to 18’’ electrons for atomic numbers greater than 20 such as 21, 22, 23, 24 and so on.

⇒ This 18 electron-holding property of the third shell is specifically important for the d-block elements (Scandium to Zinc).

⇒ The M-shell is divided into subshells (s, p, and d). s can hold only 2 electrons. 6 electrons can be placed in the p-subshell. 2+6 =8, so after these 8 electrons, the rest of the electrons can be placed in the d-subshell of the third shell.

So, it is due to the presence of the d-subshell that the third shell can hold more than 8 and up to 18 electrons in total.

⇒ Another rule to keep in mind is that the filling of electrons follows the Aufbau Principle. Electrons are filled diagonally.

After completely filling the s and p subshell of shell number 3, 2 electrons are accommodated in the s-subshell of the fourth shell. Only then the remaining electrons are placed in the 3d subshell of the third shell.

The electrons are placed in a clockwise manner, as we discussed in step 4. Starting from the top position, put the electrons one at a time while moving in a clockwise direction (Top-Right—Bottom-Left), before pairing up the electrons.

Out of the 18 electrons left of the Nickel atom, we place 8 electrons in the third shell, moving in a clockwise manner as we have done for electrons in step 4.

18 – 8 = 10.

As we already told you, after the 8 electrons in the third shell, we first need to place 2 electrons in the fourth shell and then come back to place the remaining electrons into the third shell again.

Thus, let us place 2 electrons out of the 8 left in the fourth shell first.

6. Draw the Fourth electron shell

Here, we draw the fourth electron shell and put 2 electrons in it. Starting from the top position, put the electrons one at a time while moving in a clockwise direction (Top-Right—Bottom-Left). Here we have only 2 electrons to put in the fourth shell, so one is placed at the top while the other is situated at the right end as shown below.

10 – 2 = 8.

We are left with 8 electrons so now we will go back and place these 8 electrons into the third shell.

7. Place the remaining electrons back into the Third electron shell

The remaining 8 electrons of Nickel are placed into the Third electron shell, as shown below. In this way, this shell has a total of 16 electrons.

The third electron shell keeps on filling in the same manner in the first-row transition metals (Sc Ti, V all the way to Ni, Cu, and Zn) till this shell is filled to its maximum capacity of holding 18 electrons. But we are not concerned with that in this article.

So for now, you have the Bohr model of the Nickel atom that contains 28 protons and 31 neutrons in the nucleus region while a total of 28 electrons circulate around the nucleus in specific orbits called shells.

The first electron shell of Nickel has two electrons, there are eight electrons in the second shell, sixteen electrons in the third shell, and two electrons are present in the fourth shell of the Nickel atom.

Also check :- Bohr model for all elements of Periodic table

## Find the Valence electron of Nickel through its Bohr diagram

From the Bohr diagram of an atom, we can easily find the number of valence electrons in an atom by looking at its outermost shell.

Now to determine the valence electrons present in the Nickel atom, have a quick look at its Bohr diagram.

The Bohr diagram of Nickel has four electron shells (K, L, M, N), the K-shell is the innermost shell while the outermost shell is the N-shell.

Generally, the outermost shell of an atom is also called the valence shell. According to that, definition, the electrons present in the N-shell of the Nickel atom are its valence electrons.

The outermost shell i.e., N-shell in the Nickel Bohr model contains 2 electrons hence the number of valence electrons present in the Nickel atom should also be 2.

⇒ However, an important point to remember here is that valence electrons are also defined as the electrons of an atom that can participate in bond formation during a chemical reaction.

And the transition metal (d-block) elements such as Nickel (Ni) have the ability to use the electrons present in their 3d sub-shell in addition to their 4s electrons in chemical bonding.

So, as there are 8 electrons present in the 3d subshell of Ni in addition to 2 electrons in its outermost shell hence Nickel is actually believed to have a total of 2+8 = 10 valence electrons.

Let’s read in detail – Valence electrons of transition metals

## Electron dot diagram of a Nickel atom

The electron dot diagram also called Lewis’s structure of an atom represents the total valence electrons present in it.

As there are 10 valence electrons in an atom of Nickel (Ni) so there are 10 dots around the Nickel atom in its electron dot diagram, as shown below.

## The electron configuration of Nickel

Nickel has an atomic number of 28 and it contains a total number of 28 electrons. From the Bohr model of Nickel, we know that it has 2 electrons in the K-shell, 8 electrons in the L-shell, 16 electrons in the M-shell, and 2 electrons in the N-shell.

So based on this electron distribution between the shells, the electronic configuration of the Nickel atom is [2,8,16,2].

Or the electronic configuration of Nickel is [Ar] 3d8 4s2 since it contains a total of 28 electrons.

## FAQ

### What is the Bohr diagram?

The Bohr diagram formally called a Bohr-Rutherford model is a visual representation of orbiting electrons around the small nucleus of an atom. For example, the Bohr diagram of Nickel (Ni) represents the 28 electrons present in it, revolving around the small nucleus in specific energy levels called K, L, M, and N shells.

### How many electron shells the Nickel Bohr model contains?

Electron shells are also called energy levels. You can find the number of electron shells for an element by knowing its period number in the Periodic Table.

The elements or atoms in the first period of the Periodic Table have one energy level or one electron shell, similarly, the elements in the second period have two energy levels or two electron shells, and so on.

As the Nickel (Ni) atom belongs to the 4th Period in the periodic table, hence the number of electron shells for the Bohr model of Nickel is also 4. There are 4 electron shells in the Nickel Bohr model namely K-shell, L-shell, M-shell, and N-shell.

### How many valence electrons are present in a Nickel atom Bohr diagram?

According to the Bohr diagram of Nickel, its outer shell is shell number 4 i.e., the N-shell containing 2 valence electrons.

But as we know the transition metal elements such as Ni can use their inner d-subshell electrons in addition to the outer s-subshell electrons during chemical bonding.

Thus, the total number of valence electrons present in Nickel is 10 because it can use its 3d electrons in addition to the 4s electrons during chemical bonding.

Eight 3d electrons and two 4s electrons make a total of 10 valence electrons in Nickel. The Ni atom can form ions other than its most common Ni2+ ion, using these 3d electrons.

## Summary

• The Bohr model of Nickel (Ni) is drawn with four electron shells, the first shell contains 2 electrons, the second shell contains 8 electrons, the third shell contains 16 electrons and the fourth shell contains 2 electrons.
• The atomic number of Nickel is 28. As Nickel (Ni) is a neutral atom hence the number of protons and electrons available for its Bohr diagram are equal i.e., 28.
• The number of neutrons for the Bohr diagram of Nickel can be found by subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass (rounded off to the nearest whole number).
• The electron configuration of Nickel in terms of the shells is [2,8,16,2] while in the standard form it is [Ar] 3d8 4s2.

### Vishal Goyal

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