Is Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) polar or nonpolar? - Polarity of NH4NO3
The question is –
Is NH4NO3 polar or non-polar?
⇒ NH4NO3 is polar in nature.
Ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is an ionic compound composed of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3–) ions. All ionic compounds are polar in nature.
The ammonium (NH4+) ion is a non-polar molecular ion. It comprises a nitrogen (N) atom present at the center, surrounded by 4 hydrogen (H) atoms in a symmetrical tetrahedral arrangement and molecular geometry.
Each N-H bond is polar as per an electronegativity difference of 0.84 units between the single covalently bonded nitrogen (E.N = 3.04) and hydrogen (E.N = 2.20) atoms.
However, the four N-H dipole moments get canceled in the symmetrical molecular shape to yield an overall non-polar molecular ion (net µ = 0).
On the other hand, the nitrate (NO3–) ion is trigonal planar in shape with three polar N-O bonds having an electronegativity difference of 0.40 units between the respective nitrogen and oxygen (E.N = 3.44) atoms.
The N-O dipole moments get canceled equally in this symmetrical molecular shape. Thus, NO3– is also overall non-polar (net µ = 0).
However, +1 and -1 formal charges are present on the ammonium and nitrate ions, respectively.
Thus, the ionic compound NH4NO3 is overall polar as it consists of oppositely charged ions held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction.
⇒ How to know if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
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