Is F2 polar or nonpolar? - Polarity of F2
Fluorine is a highly toxic diatomic gaseous compound represented by the chemical formula F2. This lightest halogen is a pale yellow-green gas with a pungent odor at room temperature.
Fluorine is the most reactive and electronegative element in the Periodic Table. The small amounts of fluorine present in the natural water protect our teeth from dental decay.
In this article, we will discuss the polarity of fluorine (F2). So, is F2 polar or non-polar? Continue reading to find out.
Is F2 polar or non-polar?
Fluorine (F2) is a non-polar molecule. The F-F bond in the F2 molecule is non-polar due to no electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms.
As the F2 molecule contains two same atoms and there is no difference in electronegativity between the two atoms, the electronic charge is evenly distributed over the molecule.
Due to this, the F-F bond in the F2 molecule is non-polar and possesses no dipole moment value.
Thus, the symmetric, linear F2 molecule is non-polar with a net dipole moment equal to 0.
|Name of molecule||Fluorine (F2)|
|Bond type||Non-polar covalent|
|Polar or Non-polar?||Non-polar|
What is a polar and non-polar molecule?
A molecule with an equal charge distribution between different centers of bonded atoms is a non-polar molecule.
It is formed by the covalent bond between two same atoms leading to a symmetric electron density in the molecule overall, such as the F2 molecule.
In the case of asymmetric molecules, If the dipole moments of individually polar bonds are canceled, the molecule will be non-polar.
Hence, a non-polar molecule has an equal distribution of the electronic charge. Contrarily, if the electronic charge is not evenly distributed over the molecule, in that case, it will be a polar molecule.
The following three factors influence the polarity of any covalent molecule:
- Dipole moment.
- Molecular geometry or shape.
How do these factors lead to the non-polar nature of the fluorine (F2) molecule? Let’s find out.
Factors affecting the polarity of F2
It is defined as the ability of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons from a covalent chemical bond.
Electronegativity decreases down the group in the Periodic Table of elements while it increases across a period.
It is directly related to the polarity of any molecule. The greater the difference in electronegativity between atoms in a molecule, the higher will be the bond polarity.
Fluorine belongs to group VII-A (or 17) of the Periodic Table. The electronic configuration of fluorine is 1s22s22p5, so it has 7 valence electrons for bonding.
The two F atoms thus form a single covalent bond with each other to complete their octet configuration in the F2 molecule.
One valence electron consumed in bonding out of the seven initially available leaves behind six valence electrons, i.e., three lone pairs of electrons on each F atom in the F2 molecule.
|Atom||Electronic configuration||Valence electrons|
According to Pauling’s electronegativity scale, a molecule is non-polar if there is an electronegativity difference of 0 units between the bonded atoms.
Fluorine is the most electronegative atom in the Periodic Table (E.N = 3.98). There is no difference in electronegativity between the same bonded atoms in the F2 molecule.
Due to the zero electronegativity difference, there is a uniform electronic charge distribution in the F2 molecule overall. As a result, no charged poles are developed in the F2 molecule.
Thus, the F-F bond is non-polar in the F2 molecule.
The dipole moment is the product of electrical charge (Q) and bond length (r) between two bonded atoms. It is a vector quantity expressed in Debye (D) units.
It is represented by a Greek symbol µ and measures the polarity of a bond.
The dipole moment of any molecule depends on the difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. The greater the electronegativity difference, the higher the bond polarity, resulting in a high dipole moment value.
It points from the partial positive (δ+) center to the partial negative (δ–) center of a bond or molecule.
As the F2 molecule constituents the atoms of the same element (F), there is no difference in electronegativity between the bonded atoms. Due to this, the net dipole of the F-F bond is zero in the F2 molecule.
As a result of the zero dipole moment of the F-F bond, the F2 molecule is non-polar.
As discussed earlier, a fluorine (F2) molecule consists of a single F-F covalent bond. The overall molecule consists of a total of 14 valence electrons. There are three lone pairs of electrons on each F atom.
The molecule adopts a linear shape to minimize the repulsion effects due to the lone pairs on each F atom. There is a bond angle of 180 degrees.
Due to no electronegativity difference between the bonded atoms, the F-F bond has no dipole moment value in the fluorine (F2) molecule. There is an equal charge distribution over the molecule.
Thus, fluorine (F2) is a non-polar molecule with a zero dipole moment.
Difference between polar and nonpolar?
|Polar molecule||Non-polar molecule|
|Atoms must have a difference in|
|Atoms may have the same or different electronegativity values|
|Unequal charge distribution overall||Equal charge distribution overall|
|Net dipole moment greater than zero||Net dipole moment equals to zero|
|Examples include water (H2O), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), ammonia (NH3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), bromine trifluoride (BrF3), nitric oxide (NO), bromine pentafluoride (BrF5), etc.||Examples include oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), fluorine (F2), methane (CH4), sulfur trioxide (SO3), etc.|
Also, check –
- How to tell if a molecule is polar or nonpolar?
- Is CH2Cl2 polar or nonpolar?
- Is CH3F polar or nonpolar?
- Is NCl3 polar or nonpolar?
- Is NO3– polar or nonpolar?
- Is BrF5 polar or nonpolar?
- Is SF4 polar or nonpolar?
- Is CO2 polar or nonpolar?
- Is NH3 polar or nonpolar?
- Is SO2 polar or nonpolar?
- Is SO3 polar or nonpolar?
- Is H2O polar or nonpolar?
- Is H2S polar or nonpolar?
- Is HCN polar or nonpolar?
- Is CCl4 polar or nonpolar?
- Is XeF4 polar or nonpolar?
- Is CH2O polar or nonpolar?
- Is CHCl3 polar or nonpolar?
- Is SF6 polar or nonpolar?
- Is BF3 polar or nonpolar?
- Is PCl5 polar or nonpolar?
- Is CH3Cl polar or nonpolar?
Why is fluorine (F2) a non-polar molecule?
F2 has a non-polar covalent bond because there is no electronegativity difference between bonded F atoms.
Thus, fluorine (F2) is a non-polar molecule.
Hydrogen (H2) and fluorine (F2) are non-polar, while hydrogen fluoride (HF) is polar. How?
Hydrogen (H2) and fluorine (F2) are non-polar because there is no electronegativity difference between bonded atoms in each molecule.
There is a uniform distribution of the electron cloud over both. Thus, H2 and F2 are non-polar with zero dipole moment value.
Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is a polar molecule because of an electronegativity difference of 1.78 units between the bonded H and F atoms.
There is a non-uniform distribution of the electron cloud over the HF molecule. Thus, HF is polar with a dipole moment value of 1.8 D.
Is fluorine (F2) soluble in water?
Fluorine gives a very violent reaction upon adding to water and produces a mixture of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and ozone (O3).
So there is no point of solubility in this case.
However, other halogens like bromine and chlorine dissolve in water to some extent.
Is there a formal charge on the bonded atoms in the F2 molecule?
Formal charge of an atom = [ valence electrons – non-bonding electrons- ½ (bonding electrons)]
For fluorine atoms
∴ The formal charge on the fluorine atoms = 7-6-2/2 = 1-1 = 0
Thus, no formal charge is present on the fluorine (F2) molecule.
- Fluorine (F2) is a non-polar molecule.
- It consists of a single non-polar F-F bond due to an electronegativity difference of 0 units between the bonded atoms.
- The electronic charge is evenly distributed over the molecule due to no electronegativity difference between the same atoms.
- There are three lone pairs of electrons on each F atom in the linear-shaped molecule.
- The F-F bond angle is 180 °, and the bond length is 142 pm.
- Due to the zero electronegativity difference, the F-F bond has no dipole moment value, and no poles are formed in the molecule.
- In conclusion, the linear F2 molecule is non-polar in nature (μ =0).
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