Fluorine (F) Orbital diagram, Electron configuration, and Valence electrons
Fluorine has an atomic number of 9 belongs to Group 17 also known as the halogen family. It is situated in the P-block of the periodic table. Fluorine has the symbol F and it ranks “24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance”.
In this article, we will discuss – Fluorine Orbital diagram, Electron configuration, and Valence electrons in detail.
Orbital diagram:- A orbital diagram is simply a pictorial representation of the arrangement of electrons in the orbital of an atom, it shows the electrons in the form of arrows, also, indicates the spin of electrons.
Electron configuration:- Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals. It shows the electrons in numbers, It doesn’t show the details on the spin of electrons like the orbital diagram.
Valence electrons:- Valence electrons are the simply outermost electron of an atom situated in an outermost shell surrounding an atomic nucleus. They can participate in the formation of chemical bonds.
How to find Electron configuration of Fluorine (F)?
The electron configuration of Fluorine can be found using the Aufbau principle.
- The word ‘Aufbau’ in German means ‘building up’.
- The Aufbau rule simply gives the order of electrons filling in the orbital of an atom in its ground state.
- It states that the orbital with the lowest energy level will be filled first before those with high energy levels. In short, the electrons will be filled in the orbital in order of their increasing energies.
- For example, the 1s orbital will be filled first with electrons before the 2s orbital.
Simply understand that there are commonly four different types of subshells – s, p, d, and, f.
These subshells can hold a maximum number of electrons on the basis of a formula, 2(2l + 1) where ‘l’ is the azimuthal quantum number.
Value of ‘l’ for different subshells.
|Subshells||Value of ‘l’||Maximum number of electrons, 2(2l + 1)||Number of orbitals in the subshell|
So, in short, the s subshell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons(1 orbital), the p subshell can hold 6 electrons(3 orbitals), the d subshell can hold 10 electrons(5 orbitals), and the f subshell can hold at most 14 electrons(7 orbitals).
Now, the electron configuration of an atom can be built by filling the electrons in a lower energy subshell first then higher, higher, and higher.
Generally, (n + l) rule is used to predict the energy level of subshells.
n = principle quantum number
l = Azimuthal quantum number
⇒ Lower the value of (n + l) for an subshell, the lower its energy, hence, it will be filled first with electrons.
⇒ For two different subshells having same (n + l) value, then the subshell with lower value of n has lower energy.
So, all these are basics of How filling of electrons will be done in different subshells, obviously, you don’t have so much time for writing electron configuration by using so many rules.
Therefore, we have a diagonal rule for electron filling order in the different subshells using the Aufbau principle.
So, the order in which the orbitals are filled with electrons from lower energy to higher energy is – 1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s < 4f < 5d < 6p < 7s < 5f < 6d < 7p and so on.
Fluorine Electron configuration using the Aufbau Principle
- A Fluorine atom is a neutral atom that has 9 atomic numbers which imply it has a total of 9 electrons.
- As per the Aufbau rule, the electrons will be filled into 1s orbital first then 2s, then 2p…so on.
- Now, for the electron configuration of Fluorine, the first 2 electrons will go in 1s orbital since s subshell can hold a maximum of 2 electrons.
- The next two electrons will go in the 2s orbital, after that, we are left with 5 electrons, these will go in the 2p orbital since the p subshell can hold a maximum of 6 electrons.
- Therefore, the electron configuration of Fluorine will be 1s22s22p5.
Fluorine (F) Electron Configuration
Orbital diagram for Fluorine
The orbital diagram simply represents the arrangement of electrons in the different orbitals of an atom, it uses an arrow to represent the electrons, every orbital(one box) contains a maximum of 2 electrons.
There are three rules followed for constructing the orbital diagram for an atom.
(1). Aufbau’s principle:- This rule state that the lower energy orbital will be filled before the higher energy orbital, for example – the 1s orbital will fill before the 2s orbital.
(2). Hund’s rule:- This rule state that each orbital of a given subshell should be filled with one electron each before pairing them. That means “Each orbital gets one electron first, before adding the second electron to the orbital”.
(3). Pauli Exclusion Principle:- This rule state that, no two electrons can occupy the same orbital with the same spin. That means “One must be spin up (↑) and one must be spin down (↓)”.
If you understand the above rules then constructing the orbital diagram or orbital notation for Fluorine is super easy.
Basics of Orbital diagram:-
There are different types of orbitals – s, p, d, and, f. These orbitals contain a number of boxes that can hold a number of electrons. Let’s see.
Each box will hold a maximum of 2 electrons with opposite spin.
- S orbital contains 1 box that can hold a maximum of 2 electrons.
- P orbital contains 3 boxes that can hold a maximum of 6 electrons.
- D orbital contains 5 boxes that can hold a maximum of 10 electrons.
- F orbital contains 7 boxes that can hold a maximum of 14 electrons.
The orbital diagram will also be filled with the same order as described by the Aufbau principle. (1s < 2s < 2p < 3s……and so on.)
What is the Orbital diagram for Fluorine?
We know the electron configuration of Fluorine is 1s22s22p5, now for drawing its orbital diagram, we need to show its electrons in form of an arrow in different boxes using Hund’s and Pauli exclusion rule.
- The orbital diagram of Fluorine contains 1s orbital, 2s orbital, and 2p orbital. 1s orbital contains 1 box, 2s orbital also contains 1 box and 2p orbital contains 3 boxes.
- Fluorine has a total of 9 electrons and one box can hold up to the two electrons.
- Therefore, the first two electrons will go in the 1s orbital, and the next two will go in the 2s orbital, now we are left with 5 electrons.
- These 5 electrons will go in the 2p orbital, since, the 2p orbital has 3 boxes, so, these electrons will be filled using Hund’s rule. (Each box gets one electron first, then start pairing).
Fluorine Orbital diagram
Electron configuration Vs Orbital diagram for Fluorine
The main difference between the orbital diagram and electron configuration is an orbital diagram shows electrons in form of arrows whereas an electron configuration shows electrons in form of numbers. Also, the orbital diagram shows details on the spin of electrons whereas the electron configuration doesn’t show it.
Both these follow the Aufbau principle (Diagonal rule).
Electron configuration for Fluorine via Bohr model (Orbit)
Bohr model describes the visual representation of orbiting electrons around the small nucleus. It used different electron shells such as K, L, M, N…so on.
These electron shells hold a specific number of electrons that can be calculated via the 2n2 formula where n represents the shell number.
|Electron shells||Shell number (n)||Max. number of electrons (2n2)|
So, K is the first shell or orbit that can hold up to 2 electrons, L is the 2nd shell which can hold up to 8 electrons, M is the third shell that can hold up to 18 electrons, and N is the fourth shell that can hold up to 32 electrons.
Now, Fluorine has an atomic number of 9 and it contains a total number of 9 electrons. Hence, 2 electrons will go in the first shell(K) and 7 electrons will go in the second shell(L).
Therefore, the electrons per shell for Fluorine is 2, 7, hence, we can say, based on the shell, the electronic configuration of the Fluorine atom is [2, 7].
Also check – How to draw Bohr model of Fluorine atom
Fluorine Valence electrons
Valence electrons are the outermost electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom. They have more energy, hence, they are part of most chemical reactions.
We can find valence electrons of an atom either by knowing its periodic group number or its electron configuration. Both these ways are super easy.
Finding Fluorine Valence electrons through the Group number
For neutral atoms, the valence electrons of an atom will be equal to its main periodic group number. However, for transition metals, the process of finding valence electrons is complicated.
Now, for determining the valence electron for the Fluorine atom, look at the periodic table and find its Group number. The group number can be found from its column on the periodic table.
So, the number of valence electrons in Fluorine is 7. Since it belongs to Group 17 (also called 7A) in the Periodic table.
Finding Fluorine Valence electrons through the Electron configuration or Bohr model
We know, the electron configuration of the Fluorine atom is 1s22s22p5, and valence electrons are those electrons found in the outer shell of an atom.
This electron configuration of Fluorine shows that the outer shell of Fluorine has 7 electrons(2s22p5), hence, the number of valence electrons in the Fluorine atom is 7.
Also, we know, that the electron configuration of Fluorine based on the shells is [2, 7], which means, that two electrons are present in the first shell, and seven electrons are present in 2nd shell or outer shell.
Hence, the electrons found in the 2nd shell of the Fluorine atom are its valence electrons because it is the outermost shell also called the valence shell.
The 2nd shell or outer shell of the Fluorine atom contains 7 electrons, therefore, the number of valence electrons in the Fluorine atom is 7.
Fluorine Valence electrons
Electron configuration, Valence electrons, and Orbital diagram of Fluorine in tabular form
|Name of atom||Fluorine (F)|
|Number of electrons||9|
|Number of electrons per shell||[2, 7]|
|Number of valence electrons||7|
|Electron configuration||1s22s22p5 or [He] 2s22p5|
|Orbital diagram||Consist of three orbitals – 1s, 2s, and, 2p|
- Nitrogen orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Oxygen orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Carbon orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Neon orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Boron orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Sodium orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Magnesium orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Aluminum orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Silicon orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Phosphorous orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Sulfur orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Chlorine orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Argon orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Potassium orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Calcium orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Beryllium orbital diagram and electron configuration
- Lithium orbital diagram and electron configuration
What are the Ground state and Excited-state Electron configurations of Fluorine?
There is a simple difference between Ground state and Excited-state configuration.
The ground state configuration of an atom is the same as its regular electron configuration in which electrons remain in the lowest possible energy.
So, the ground-state electron configuration for the Fluorine atom is 1s22s22p5.
The excited-state configuration of an atom is different from the regular configuration of an atom, this occurs, when an electron is excited and jumps into a higher orbital.
The excited-state electron configuration for Fluorine is 1s22s22p43s1.
What is the shorthand electron configuration of Fluorine?
The shorthand electron configuration for Fluorine atom is [He] 2s22p5.
∴ [He] electron configuration is 1s2.
Which element has the 1s22s22p5 Electron configuration?
Element with electron configuration 1s22s22p5 is Fluorine (F) which has the atomic number of 9.
How many valence electrons does Fluorine have?
The Fluorine atom has 7 valence electrons in its outermost or valence shell. Fluorine is belonged to group 17th and has the atomic number of 9.
What is the orbital diagram for Fluorine (F)?
The orbital diagram for Fluorine is drawn with 3 orbitals. The orbitals are 1s, 2s, and 2p. The Fluorine orbital diagram contains 2 electrons in 1s orbital, 2 electrons in 2s orbital, and the rest five electrons in 2p orbital.
Orbital diagram for a ground-state electron configuration of Fluorine atom is shown below-
What is the electron configuration of the F-- ion?
We know, in general, the electron configuration of Fluorine (F) is 1s22s22p5.
Now, in F-- ion, the negative charge means, Fluorine has gained one extra electron.
Therefore, to write the electron configuration of the F-- ion, we have to add one electron to the configuration of Fluorine (F).
∴ The resulting electron configuration for the Fluoride ion (F--) ion will be 1s22s22p6. It resembles the configuration of the nearest inert gas i.e Neon.
Properties and Uses of Fluorine
- At standard conditions, it appears as a pale yellow diatomic gas.
- It is an extremely reactive and the most electronegative element in chemistry.
- Its electronegativity is 3.98, according to the Pauling scale.
- Its oxidation state varies from -1 to 0.
- It has a cubic crystal structure.
- Its electronegativity value on the Pauling scale is 3.98.
- It is the lightest halogen and is highly toxic in nature.
- Its boiling point is 85.03 K and its melting point is 53.48 K.
- Its magnetic order is diamagnetic.
- Fluorine is used in various medical applications such as Dental care, Pharmaceuticals, PET scanning, Oxygen carriers, etc.
- It is used to make agrochemicals, polymers, refrigerant gases, and inorganic fluorides.
Reactions of Fluorine
Fluorine is the only halogen element that forms the most interhalogen compounds.
⇒ IF5 + F2 → IF7
⇒ I2 + 5F2 → 2IF5
⇒ Cl2 + F2 → 2ClF
When fluorine reacts with Group-13 elements, such as boron, aluminum, and gallium, it forms halide compounds.
- 2B + 3F2 → 2BF3
- 2Al + 3F2 → 2AlF3
- 2Ga + 3F2 → 2GaF3
The reaction of fluorine with hydrogen forms fluoride compounds.
⇒ H2 + F2 → 2HF
- The electron configuration of Fluorine in terms of the shell or orbit is [2, 7].
- The ground-state electron configuration of the Fluorine (F) atom is 1s22s22p5. And for the excited state, it is 1s22s22p43s1.
- The shorthand electron configuration for Fluorine is [He] 2s22p5.
- The electron configuration for fluoride ion (F--) ion is 1s22s22p6.
- The number of valence electrons available for Fluorine atoms is 7. Fluorine is situated in Group 17th and has an atomic number of 9.
- The first shell of Fluorine has 2 electrons and the outer shell or valence shell of Fluorine has 7 electrons, hence, the number of valence electrons in the Fluorine atom is 7.
- The orbital diagram for Fluorine is drawn by following three principles – the Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, and Pauli’s exclusion principle.
- The Fluorine orbital diagram comprises three orbitals. The three orbitals are 1s, 2s, and 2p.
- The first two electrons will go in the 1s orbital, the next two in the 2s orbital, and the remaining five in the 2p orbital.