Is Cl2XeF2 polar or nonpolar? - Polarity of XeCl2F2
The question is –
Is Cl2XeF2 polar or non-polar?
⇒ Cis- Cl2XeF2 is polar while trans-Cl2XeF2 is a non-polar molecule.
The polarity of Cl2XeF2 or XeCl2F2 depends on the arrangement of two chlorine (Cl) and two fluorine (F) atoms around the central xenon (Xe) atom.
Cis-trans isomerism exists in this molecule. In the cis-form, two Cl and two F-atoms are each present on the same side of the molecule.
Contrarily, in trans-Cl2XeF2, two Cl-atoms and two F-atoms each occupy the opposite sides of the molecule, a complementary pair facing each other.
Each Xe-Cl and Xe-F bond is individually polar owing to an electronegativity difference of 0.56 units and 1.38 units, respectively, between the bonded atoms.
Each of the Cl and F-atoms thus gains partial negative charges (δ–) while the central Xe-atom attains a partial positive charge (δ+) in the Cl2XeF2 molecule.
The Cl2XeF2 molecule possesses a square planar geometry. 2 lone pairs of electrons surround the central Xe-atom, one on each side of the molecule, which leads to an overall symmetrical shape.
The individual Xe-Cl and Xe-F dipole moments get canceled in opposite directions in the trans-form. Thus trans-Cl2XeF2 is overall non-polar (net µ = 0).
In contrast, the stronger Xe-F dipole moment does not get canceled with the oppositely-facing Xe-Cl dipole moment in the cis-form of Cl2XeF2.
The charged electron cloud stays non-uniformly distributed. Consequently, cis-Cl2XeF2 is overall polar (net µ > 0).
⇒ How to know if a compound is polar or nonpolar?
Is Cl2XeF2 or XeCl2F2 polar or nonpolar?
The overall polarity of Cl2XeF2 depends on the arrangement of its atoms.
The trans-form of the Cl2XeF2 or XeCl2F2 is non-polar (net µ = 0) due to the cancellation of the individual Xe-Cl and Xe-F dipole moments in opposite directions.
In contrast, the cis-form of Cl2XeF2 or XeCl2F2 is polar (net µ > 0) due to the stronger Xe-F dipole moment not getting canceled with the oppositely-facing Xe-Cl dipole moment.
What is the geometry of Cl2XeF2?
Cl2XeF2 has a square planar geometry, meaning that the molecule is shaped like a square and all the atoms lie in the same plane.
The central Xe-atom is surrounded by two lone pairs of electrons, one on each side of the molecule, which contributes to its symmetrical shape.
What causes the polarity of Cl2XeF2?
The polarity of Cl2XeF2 is caused by the electronegativity differences between the bonded atoms (Xe, Cl, and F).
Each Xe-Cl and Xe-F bond is individually polar, with the Cl and F-atoms gaining partial negative charges (δ–) and the central Xe-atom attaining a partial positive charge (δ+).
This uneven distribution of charge creates a dipole moment, which results in the overall polarity of the molecule.
What is the difference between cis- and trans-Cl2XeF2?
The difference between cis- and trans-Cl2XeF2 lies in the arrangement of the Cl and F-atoms around the central Xe-atom.
In the cis-form, two Cl and two F-atoms are each present on the same side of the molecule.
In contrast, in trans-Cl2XeF2, two Cl-atoms and two F-atoms each occupy opposite sides of the molecule, facing each other in a complementary pair.
This difference in arrangement determines the net polarity of the molecule, with cis-Cl2XeF2 being polar and trans-Cl2XeF2 being non-polar.
About the author
Vishal Goyal is the founder of Topblogtenz, a comprehensive resource for students seeking guidance and support in their chemistry studies. He holds a degree in B.Tech (Chemical Engineering) and has four years of experience as a chemistry tutor. The team at Topblogtenz includes experts like experienced researchers, professors, and educators, with the goal of making complex subjects like chemistry accessible and understandable for all. A passion for sharing knowledge and a love for chemistry and science drives the team behind the website. Let's connect through LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/in/vishal-goyal-2926a122b/