Bohr model of Boron atom - How to draw Boron(B) Bohr-Rutherford diagram?
The Bohr Model of Boron(B) has a nucleus that contains 6 neutrons and 5 protons. This nucleus is surrounded by two-electron shells named K-shell and L-shell. The outermost shell in the Bohr diagram of Boron contains 3 electrons that also called valence electrons.
|Name||Boron Bohr Model|
|Number of neutrons||6|
|Number of protons||5|
|Number of electrons||5|
|Total electron shells||2|
|Electron in the First shell(K)||2|
|Electrons in the Second shell(L)||3|
|Total valence electrons in Boron||3|
How to draw Bohr Model of Boron(B)?
Bohr model describes the visual representation of orbiting electrons around the small nucleus. It used different electron shells such as K, L, M, N…so on. These shells hold a specific number of electrons, the electron shell which is closest to the nucleus has less energy and the electron shell which is farthest from the nucleus has more energy.
Bohr diagram is very interesting and easy to draw. Here, we will draw the Bohr diagram of the Boron atom with some simple steps.
Steps to draw the Bohr Model of Boron atom
1. Find the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in the Boron atom
Protons are the positively charged particles and neutrons are the uncharged particles, both these are constituents of the atom nuclei. Electrons are the negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom
To find the number of protons an atom contains, just look at its atomic number.
If the atomic number of atom is 2, then proton will also be 2, if atomic number is 3, then proton will also be 3.
So, the atomic number for Boron is 5, hence, the number of protons in the Boron atom is also 5.
Now, to determine the number of neutrons in an atom, use this formula.
⇒ Number of neutrons in atom = Atomic mass of the atom(rounded to the nearest whole number) – Number of proton in an atom
For example, An atom have 20.99 atomic mass and 14 protons.
Then, to find the number of neutron, round the atomic mass to the near whole number, so, atomic mass 20.99 round to 21.
= (21 – 14 protons) = 7 number of neutrons in the atom
Now, To get the number of neutrons in a Boron atom, look at its atomic mass which is 10.811 rounded to 11, and the number of protons in Boron is 5.
∴ Hence, the number of neutrons in Boron atom = (11 – 5) = 6
It should be noted that “The number of electrons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of protons”.
So, the Boron atom is neutral, hence, its number of electrons will be equal to the number of protons which is five as we already discussed.
⇒ The number of electrons in Boron atom = 5
⇒ The number of protons in Boron atom = 5
⇒ The number of neutrons in Boron atom = 6
2. Draw the nucleus of an atom
A nucleus is a dense and small region that contains the number of protons and neutrons of an atom.
In this step, we have to draw a small circle that consists of a number of protons and the number of neutrons of a Boron atom.
3. Draw the First electron shell
“An electron shell may be thought of as an orbit followed by electrons around an atom’s nucleus.”
The first electron shell is also called the K-shell, this is the closest shell to the nucleus of an atom and can hold a maximum of two electrons.
As we know, the boron atom has a total of 5 electrons. So, put two electrons from it, in the first shell, next to each other.
We have successfully drawn the first shell of the Boron atom that can hold 2 electrons. As the Boron atom has a total of 5 electrons, and from 5 electrons we have used two electrons in the first shell.
∴ (5 – 2) = 3 electrons
Therefore, we are left with 3 electrons, let’s put them in the next shell of the Boron atom.
4. Draw the Second electron shell
The second shell also called the L-shell that can hold a maximum of 8 electrons. This shell is drawn after the first electron shell.
Since we already used two electrons in the first shell, now, we have to put the remaining 3 electrons in the second shell.
In the second electron shell, the electrons are added one at a time, starting from the top position and then going in a clockwise direction.
In second shell, electrons are filled one at a time in clockwise direction as a clock position – 12 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 6 o’clock, 9 o’clock positions.
So, we have to put 3 remaining electrons of the Boron atom in the second shell, hence, start from the top position, put electrons one at a time, and go in a clockwise direction.
Bohr model of Boron atom
That’s all, this is our Bohr model of the Boron atom that contains 5 protons and 6 neutrons in the nucleus region, and 5 electrons are orbited around the nucleus, two electrons in the first shell, and three electrons in the second shell.
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Find the Valence electron of Boron through its Bohr diagram
Valence electrons are found in the outermost shell of an atom and they can take participate in the formation of a chemical bond. These electrons have more energy compare to the inner shell electrons.
From the Bohr diagram of an atom, we can easily find the number of valence electrons in an atom by looking at its outermost shell.
So, we have to find a valence electron in the Boron atom, for this, look at its Bohr diagram.
Bohr’s diagram of Boron has only two electron shells (K and L), the inner shell is the K-shell and the outermost shell is L-shell.
Hence, the electrons found in the L-shell of the Boron atom are its valence electrons because it is the outermost shell also called the valence shell.
The L-shell or outer shell of the Boron Bohr model contains 3 electrons, therefore, the number of valence electrons in the Boron atom is 3.
Electron dot diagram of Boron atom
Electron dot diagram also called lewis structure which represents the valence electrons of atoms.
As, from the Bohr diagram of Boron, we got to know, it has 3 valence electrons.
So, just represent these 3 valence electrons around the Boron atom as a dot.
The electron configuration of Boron
“Electron configuration is the distribution of electrons of an atom or molecule in atomic or molecule orbitals”
Boron has an atomic number of 5 and it contains a total number of 5 electrons. From the Bohr model of Boron, we know, 2 electrons are in the K-shell and 3 electrons are in the L-shell.
So, based on the shell, the electronic configuration of the Boron atom is [2, 3].
Or the electronic configuration of Boron is 1s22s22p1 since it contains a total of 5 electrons, the first two-electron will go in the 1s orbital, the next two in the 2s orbital, and the remaining one electron will go in the 2p orbital.
S orbital can hold maximum of 2 electrons and P orbital can hold maximum of 6 electrons.
- Boron orbital diagram, electron configuration, and valence electron
- How to find the electron configuration using different methods?
How many electron shells a Boron Bohr model contains?
Electron shells also called energy levels, you can find the number of electron shells for an element by knowing its period number in the periodic table.
The elements or atoms in the first period of the periodic table have one energy level or one electron shell, same as, the elements in the second period have two energy levels or two-electron shells, and so on…
So, the Boron atom belongs to the 2nd Period in the periodic table, hence, the number of electron shells for the Bohr model of Boron will be 2 (K-shell and L-shell).
What is the outer shell of the Bohr diagram of the Boron atom?
The outermost shell also called the valence shell, which contains the valence electrons of the atom.
According to the Bohr diagram of Boron, the outer shell is L-shell which contains 3 valence electrons.
Properties of Boron
- In amorphous form, it appears as a brown powder and in crystalline form, it appears as a brittle, dark metalloid.
- It belongs to Group 13 and period 2 in the periodic table.
- It has three valence electrons that are used to form a covalent bond.
- It has a boiling point of 3927 °C and a melting point of 2076 °C.
- It has a rhombohedral crystal structure.
- The Bohr model of Boron is drawn with only two electron shells, the first shell contains 2 electrons and the second shell contains 3 electrons.
- Boron is neutral and its atomic number is 5, hence, the number of protons and electrons available for its Bohr diagram is also 5.
- The number of neutrons for the Bohr diagram of Boron can be found by subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass(rounded to the nearest whole).
- The electron configuration of Boron in terms of the shell is [2, 3], or in normal form, it is [He] 2s2 2p1.